A Global Catastrophe of Coronavirus Outbreak: History, Pathogenesis, Signs, Diagnosis and General Precautions
Chinmay D. Deshmukh, Anil Tukaram Pawar, Satish Arunrao Polshettiwar
Sch Acad J Pharm | 183-187
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i06.003
The year 2020 began with normal joy and enthusiasm like every New Year. People were busy with their jobs, works, and students with their schools and colleges. Everybody was engaged with their routine duty for the initial two months. Everything was so smooth, straight and easy. Nobody was aware of forthcoming biological hazards. A coronavirus outbreak! A small virus is believed to came from Wuhan, China and spread like a speed of light thought-out the world within a month. India was also no exception. Therefore, it is known as the coronavirus pandemic. People started coughing, having fever, tiredness, difficulty in breathing or having shortness of breath. When tested in government laboratories, affected patients found coronavirus positive having coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Other people, who came in contact with the infected patients, were also found positive. Meantime, the people who arrived in India from abroad also found to have the infection. The main route of spreading the virus is from nasal and oral droplets by the patient. In no time, the virus spread drastically. It was globally widespread. The US, Italy, Spain, Brazil, China were on the top list of the infection. In India, the national lockdown was declared on 25 March 2020 following a public curfew to prevent the further spread of coronavirus. Many suspected people or passengers after travel are quarantined. At that time, corona affected people were approximately 500. The present review is planned to make people aware of the spread, pathogenesis, signs, diagnosis of viral infection and most important precautions to be taken to restrict the spread of this coronavirus.
Original Research Article
June 6, 2020
Assessment of Medication Adherence in Psychiatric Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Abubaker Siddiq, Bharathi DR, Himanshu Joshi, Yogitha A
Sch Acad J Pharm | 172-174
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i06.001
Medication adherence is a serious challenge for providers treating patients with many types of illness. Patients with acute conditions are more likely to be adherent than those with chronic disorders. In the Present study out of 201 patients enrolled, the medication adherence assessment was conducted in 59 patients who were selected based on the study criteria. The baseline score was taken and later the scores are taken at the First month and Second month. Among 59 patients the base line score was, 0 patients with score 0, 9 patients with score 1, 8 patients with score 2, 12 patients with score 3, 12 patients with score 4, 10 patients with score 5, 6 patients with score 6, 2 patients with score 7, 0 patients with score 8.The first follow up score was 0 patients with score 0, 14 patients with score 1, 16patients with score 2, 7 patients with score 3, 14 patients with score 4, 6 patients with score 5, 2 patients with score 6, 0 patients with score 7, 0 patients with score 8. The second follow up score was 0 patients with score 0, 21 patients with score 1, 14 patients with score 2, 17 patients with score 3, 2 patients with score 4, 3 patients with score 5, 2 patients with score 6, 0 patients with score 7, 0 patients with score 8. The p-value between the base line and 1st follow up, 1st follow up and 2nd follow up, base line and 2nd follow up shows 1.00 which shows no significance; but descriptively it can be observed that, the patients are getting adhered to their medication, as the patients are coming to the group of moderately adherent and highly adherent.
Hot Melt Extrusion an Emerging Pharmaceutical Technology
Sagar Kothawade, Rutuja Wakure, Shubham Biyani, Vijay Thalapally, Bhagwan Bukya
Sch Acad J Pharm | 175-182
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i06.002
Hot Melt Extrusion technology offers an opportunity to acquire intellectual property, evident from the increasing number of patents and publications that have integrated it as an emerging pharmaceutical formulation technology over the last decades. Industrial adaptability has allowed hot-melt extrusion (HME) to gain wide recognition over the last decades and has already established its place in a wide range of manufacturing operations and advancements in pharmaceutical research. This study addressed the importance of the use of a quality-based strategy, based on a holistic approach to equipment, materials processing methods, novel formulation design and advancements, and its various applications for oral drug delivery systems. In drug discovery and development, the industry estimates that more than 50% of the active pharmaceutical ingredient used is part of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System II, defined as water-insoluble compounds, leading to formulations having less bioavailability. The pharmaceutical industry needs to develop formulations that will improve the solubility and ultimately the bioavailability of these compounds. Hot Melt Extrusion has already been shown to be robust, novel and powerful technique for improved bioavailability as well as taste masking of bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This paper examines the many benefits of Hot Melt Extrusion, based on a holistic approach to equipment, material processing methods, novel design and advancements.