Graphene Nanomaterials: A Comprehensive Review
Priya Bhardwaj, Upendra Kumar Sharma, Saurabh Savita, Abha Mishra
Sch Acad J Pharm | 278-282
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i09.005
Graphene is a material which is two dimensional, sp2 hybridized, organized in a hexagonal lattice. It is a miracle matter in the planet. Graphene derivative in developing discipline has seen tremendous evolution. The multidisciplinary attributes of graphene such as considerable surface area, thermal steadiness, and electrical conductivity attract immense contemplation at the moment. Nanomaterials based on Graphene are growing as a result of characterization, synthesis and large-scale manufacture of graphene. Graphene has portrayed a deep-rooted representation in the drug-delivery system. It’s an assertive matter whenever it makes content mixed with other. In the present article, we review the utilizes of graphene in different sorts of drug delivery in addition to biological application.
A Brief Review on the Synthesis, Cytotoxixity, Bioavailability and Various Applications of Graphene Nanomaterials
Saurabh Savita, Upendra Kumar Sharma, Priya Bhardwaj, Abha Mishra
Sch Acad J Pharm | 272-277
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i09.004
The physicochemical characteristics of graphene-based nanometrics are ideal for a variety of electronic, telecommunication, energy, and healthcare applications. Human and environmental exposure to graphenic nanomaterials increases due to the synthesis, characterization and mass processing of graphene as well as the growth of biomedical and consumer products based on graphene. Throughout this paper, we analyze the various available synthetic methods of graphic nanomaterials and discuss in-vitro and in-vivo mammalian cell-associated biological structure and toxicity of these nanomaterials. Different synthesis strategies were developed to generate the chemical and physical properties of graphene nanometries. As such their relationships with cells and organs also change. Literature published bio-structure and cytotoxicity results from graphene nanomaterials. In particular, graphene nanomaterials in in-vitro cell cultivation and animal models may contain toxic chemical residues, interfere with graphene cell interactions and complicate interpretation of the experimental results. Synthesis methods including exfoliation of the liquid phase and wet chemical oxidation require harmful organic solvents, surfactants, strong acids and oxidants to dissolve graphite flakes. Such biological and inorganic molecules, which interfere with living cells and tissues, activate toxins or eventually cause necrobiosis, can be deposited with the final graphene products. Residual chemicals in living cells pose a high risk of toxicity from graphene. This study summarizes the synthesis of nanomaterials, cytotoxicity, bioavailability, and various applications.
Original Research Article
Sept. 17, 2020
Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Valeriana wallichii Roots on Animal Models
Anil Kumar Bonthu, Vasundhara Boosani, Sai Giridhar Reddy Bugulu, Soujanya Burgu, Narender Boggula, Vasudha Bakshi, Rajendra Kumar Jadi, Yaso Deepika Mamidisetti
Sch Acad J Pharm | 263-271
DOI : 10.36347/sajp.2020.v09i09.003
Background and Aim: Valeriana is a well-known Indian traditional medicinal herb with sleep remedy. Valeriana wallichii (Tagara) is perennial herb of Valerianaceae family growing on higher altitude. Experimental studies proved its activity on anxiety, stress, sleep, depression, performance, alertness, GABA receptor, Hence an effort was made to study the ethnopharmacological uses of V. wallichii. Sedative drugs mostly cause dose-dependent depression of the central nervous system which results in hypnosis and anaesthesia possibly; however, these agents are associated with some side effects ranging respiratory, digestive, immune system dysfunctions, tolerance, cognitive function deterioration, and physical dependence; hence, investigations of newer and safer agents are, therefore, imperative. The current study was aimed at investigating the sedative and hypnotic activity of the ethanol root extract of Valeriana wallichii in mice. Methods: The roots of Valeriana wallichii were extracted with ethanol following soxhlation process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using Hole cross, Open field, Hole board and Rota rod tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200mg/kg of EEVW (ethanolic extract of roots of Valeriana wallichii). Diazepam at the dose of 1mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. Results: We found that EEVW produced a significant dose dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in Hole cross and Open field tests (𝑃 < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased Rota rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Conclusion: Our study suggests that EEVW may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. Further investigation is required in the area of pharmacokinetics and toxicology to contribute additional information on the therapeutic use and quality control of the plants.