Original Research Article
Jan. 22, 2021
Genetic Improvement of Okra [Abelmoschus Esculentus (L) Moench] Based on Agromorphological, Biochemical and Ethnobotanical Studies in Three Regions of Cameroon
Nsimi Mva Armand, Dabandata Célestin, Ngalle Bille Hermine, Molo Thierry, Bell Joseph Martin, Likeng –Li- Ngue
Sch Acad J Biosci | 10-21
DOI : 10.36347/sajb.2021.v09i01.002
The study has been carried out to contribute to the development of new improved varieties of okra nearest in characterization with those lovely by Cameroonian population, from 4 Local and 2 exotic varieties. An ethnobotanical survey of populations was made to highlight a variety of okra ideotype. The agromorphological, biochemical and organoleptical characteristics of created hybrids have been evaluated to identify hybrids with the best strengths. The result shown that, the ideotype of okra proposed by ethnobotanical survey is the one with a short development (early), a medium-sized cycle, an average density of seedlings in field, an average number of fruits per plant, fruits of medium size, dark green color and smooth aspect. These varieties must have medium-sized seeds, a small number of seeds per fruit, a bland taste and high viscosity. The manifestation of the hybrid vigor appears on seven of the eight created hybrids specifically, L3xL1 for the diameter of edible fruits (5.61%) and weight of 100 seeds (16.78%), CxL1 for the number of fruits per plant (38,54%), L3xL2P for the number of branches (65,86%) and the edible fruit diameter (7.40%), IxL1 for the mass of edible fruits (24.33%), L5xL2P for the number of branches (39.62%) and diameter of edible fruits (4,30%). Regarding the biochemical parameters, some hybrids namely L5xL2P, L5xL1, CxL1, L3x L1, L3xL2P and IxL2P for the rate of dry matter, L5xL1 for the rate of carbohydrate hybrid, L3xL2P, IxL2P, CxL1 and IxL1 for the rate of fiber showed a positive useful heterosis. The study therefore permits to the conclusion that L3xL2P and L5xL2P both with the maximum number of the character are near to the ideotype needed by Cameroonian population.
Original Research Article
Jan. 15, 2021
Prevalence and Types of Chromosomal Abnormalities among Infertile Patients from a Single Fertility Centre in India
Jnapti Johnson, Navya Shetty, Ajay Kumar J, Devika Gunasheela, Rajsekhar Nayak, Swathi Shetty, Jayarama S. Kadandale
Sch Acad J Biosci | 1-9
DOI : 10.36347/sajb.2021.v09i01.001
Chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical can contribute to infertility affecting 10-15% of couples of reproductive age. Chromosomal aberrations cause meiotic disturbances, leading to the formation of abnormal gamete, which upon fertilization may either cause miscarriage or development of abnormal offspring. Therefore, detection of chromosomal abnormalities based on karyotyping can be used as a preliminary diagnostic test. In this retrospective study, the prevalence and type of chromosomal aberrations was estimated over a period of 4.3 years from July 2015 to October 2019. A conventional cytogenetic study was performed on 4204 infertile individuals using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures by the standard procedure of GTG banding. The prevalence and type of various structural and numerical aberrations among infertile individuals were evaluated and the overall rate of chromosomal aberrations were 1.55 % (65/4204). Among these cases, structural aberrations were observed in 36 (55.4%) individuals and numerical aberrations in 25 (38.4%) individuals. Reciprocal translocations (38.4%) were the most prevalent structural aberrations observed. Rare genetic conditions such as disorders of sexual development (4.6%) and chimerism (1.6%) were also detected in our study. The high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities observed in our study highlights the importance of karyotyping prior to fertility treatment for infertile individuals. This helps in genetic counselling on how to manage the risks of birth defects or genetic disorders by providing various alternative approaches for successful pregnancy through assisted reproductive technique.
Original Research Article
Dec. 29, 2020
Phytochemical Analysis of Andrographis Paniculata and Catharanthus Rosea from Korba District, Chhattisgarh, India
Rajeshwari Prabha Lahare, Anil Kumar Dashahre, Yogesh Kumar Bisen, Hari Shankar Yadav
Sch Acad J Biosci | 423-418
DOI : 10.36347/sajb.2020.v08i12.003
Andrographis paniculata and Catharanthus rosea are important ethno medicinal plant rich in bioactive compounds used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. The plants contain rich source of bioactive compound having broad range of medicinal properties like antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-mutagenic, antifungal, anti- diabetic and antiviral activities. In the present study chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts were used for phytochemical test, TLC profiling, spectral analysis and antioxidant activity from leaf, stem and root parts of plants. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of tannins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid, terpenoid, steroids, cardiac glycosides, quinones and gums in both plants. Methanol extract was used for TLC analysis for further identification of phytoconstituents in which we found maximum 5 bands in Andrographis paniculata with rf value (0.14 to 1.0) and Catharanthus rosea with rf value (0.22 to 1.0). Spectral analysis showed peak values for bioactive molecules. Highest antioxidant activity was found in aqueous and methanol extract which might be due to the presence of flavonoid and phenolic contents in both plants. This study should be beneficial for further characterization of bioactive compounds and identification of pharmaceutical lead compound.